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Section 234. All Courts may be established only by Acts. A new Court for the trial and adjudication of any particular case or a case of any particular charge in place of an ordinary Court existing under the law and having jurisdiction over such case shall not be established.
Section 235. A law having an effect of changing or amending the law on the organisation of Courts or on judicial procedure for the purpose of its application to a particular case shall not be enacted.
Section 236. The hearing of a case requires a full quorum of judges. Any judge not sitting at the hearing of a case shall not give judgement or a decision of such case, except for the case of force majeure or any other unavoidable necessity as provided by law.
In a criminal case, no arrest and detention of a person may
be made except where an order or a warrant of the Court is obtained, or where
such person commits a flagrant offence or where there is such other necessity
for an arrest without warrant as provided by law. The arrested person shall,
without delay, be notified of the charge and details of such arrest and shall
be given an opportunity to inform, at the earliest convenience, his or her relative,
or the person of his or her confidence, of the arrest. The arrested person being
kept in custody shall be sent to the Court within forty eight hours as from
the time of his or her arrival at the office of the inquiry official in order
for the court to consider whether there is a reasonable ground under the law
for the detention of the arrested person or not, except for the case of force
majeure or any other unavoidable necessity as provided by law.
A warrant of arrest or detention of a person may be issued where:
(1) there is reasonable evidence that such person is likely to have committed a serious offence which is punishable as provided by law; or
(2) there is reasonable evidence that such person is likely to have committed an offence and there also exists a reasonable cause to believe that such person is likely to abscond, tamper with the evidence or commit any other dangerous act.
Section 238. In a criminal case, a search in a private place shall not be made except where an order or a warrant of the Court is obtained or there is a reasonable ground to search without an order or a warrant of the Court as provided by law.
An application for a bail of the suspect or the accused in
a criminal case must be accepted for consideration without delay, and an excessive
bail shall not be demanded. The refusal of a bail must be based upon the grounds
specifically provided by law, and the suspect or the accused must be informed
of such grounds without delay.
The right to appeal against the refusal of a bail is protected as provided by law.
A person being kept in custody, detained or imprisoned has the right to see and consult his or her advocate in private and receive a visit as may be appropriate.
Section 240. In the case of the detention of a person in a criminal case or any other case, the detainee, the public prosecutor or other person acting in the interest of the detainee has the right to lodge with the Court having criminal jurisdiction a plaint that the detention is unlawful. Upon receipt of such plaint, the Court shall forthwith proceed with an ex parte examination. If, in the opinion of the Court, the plaint presents a prima facie case, the court shall have the power to order the person responsible for the detention to produce the detainee promptly before the Court, and if the person responsible for the detention can not satisfy the Court that the detention is lawful, the Court shall order an immediate release of the detainee.
In a criminal case, the suspect or the accused has the right
to a speedy, continuous and fair inquiry or trial.
At the inquiry stage, the suspect has the right to have an advocate or a person of his or her confidence attend and listen to interrogations.
An injured person or the accused in a criminal case has the right to inspect or require a copy of his or her statements made during the inquiry or documents pertaining thereto when the public prosecutor has taken prosecution as provided by law.
In a criminal case for which the public prosecutor issues a final non-prosecution order, an injured person, the suspect or an interested person has the right to know a summary of evidence together with the opinion of the inquiry official and the public prosecutor with respect to the making of the order for the case, as provided by law.
In a criminal case, the suspect or the accused has the right
to receive an aid from the State by providing an advocate as provided by law.
In the case where a person being kept in custody or detained cannot find an
advocate, the State shall render assistance by providing an advocate without
In a civil case, a person has the right to receive a legal aid from the State, as provided by law.
A person has the right not to make a statement incriminating himself or herself
which may result in criminal prosecution being taken against him or her.
Any statement of a person obtained from inducement, a promise, threat, deceit, torture, physical force, or any other unlawful act shall be inadmissible in evidence.
Section 244. In a criminal case, a witness has the right to protection, proper treatment, necessary and appropriate remuneration from the State as provided by law.
In a criminal case, an injured person has the right to protection,
proper treatment and necessary and appropriate remuneration from the State,
as provided by law.
In the case where any person suffers an injury to the life, body or mind on account of the commission of a criminal offence by other person without the injured person participating in such commission and the injury cannot be remedied by other means, such person or his or her heir has the right to receive an aid from the State, upon the conditions and in the manner provided by law.
Section 246. Any person who has become the accused in a criminal case and has been detained during the trial shall, if it appears from the final judgement of that case that the accused did not commit the offence or the act of the accused does not constitute an offence, be entitled to appropriate compensation, expenses and the recovery of any right lost on account of that incident, upon the conditions and in the manner provided by law.
Section 247. In the case where any person was inflicted with a criminal punishment by a final judgment, such person, an interested person, or the public prosecutor may submit a motion for a review of the case. If it appears in the judgment of the Court reviewing the case that he or she did not commit the offence, such person or his or her heir shall be entitled to appropriate compensation, expenses and the recovery of any right lost by virtue of the judgment upon the conditions and in the manner provided by law.
In the case where there is a dispute on the competent jurisdiction
among the Court of Justice, the Administrative Court, the Military Court or
any other Court, it shall be decided by a committee consisting of the President
of the Supreme Court of Justice as Chairman, the President of the Supreme Administrative
Court, the President of such other Court and not more than four qualified persons
as provided by law as members.
The rules for the submission of the dispute under paragraph one shall be as provided by law.
Judges are independent in the trial and adjudication of cases
in accordance with the Constitution and the law.
The trial and adjudication by judges shall not be subject to hierarchical supervision.
The distribution of case files to judges shall be in accordance with the rules prescribed by law.
The recall or transfer of case files shall not be permitted except in the case where justice in the trial and adjudication of the case shall otherwise be affected.
The transfer of a judge without his or her prior consent shall not be permitted except in the case of termly transfer as provided by law, promotion to a higher position, being under a disciplinary action or becoming a defendant in a criminal case.
Section 250. Judges shall not be political officials or hold political positions.
The King appoints and removes judges except in the case of
removal from office upon death.
The appointment and removal from office of a judge of any Court other than the Constitutional Court, the Court of Justice, the Administrative Court and the Military Court as well as the adjudicative jurisdiction and procedure of such Courts shall be in accordance with the law on the establishment of such Courts.
Before taking office, a judge shall make a solemn declaration
before the King in the following words:
I, (name of the declarer) do solemnly declare that I will be loyal to His Majesty the King and will faithfully perform my duties in the name of the King without any partiality in the interest of justice, of the people and of the public order of the Kingdom. I will also uphold and observe the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand and the law in every respect.
Salaries, emoluments and other benefits of judges shall be
as provided by law; provided that the system of salary-scale or emoluments applicable
to civil servants shall not be applied.
The provisions of paragraph one shall apply to Election Commissioners, Ombudsmen, members of the National Counter Corruption Commission and members of the State Audit Commission mutatis mutandis.
Section 254. No person may simultaneously become a member, whether an ex officio member or a qualified member, of the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice, the Administrative Court or any other Court as provided by law.More on Constitution of the kingdom of Thailand, B.E. 2540 :
CHAPTER I - General Provisions 1-7
CHAPTER II - Amendment of the Constitution 8-25
CHAPTER III - Rights and Liberties of the Thai People 26-65
CHAPTER IV - Duties of the Thai People 66-70
CHAPTER V - Directive Principles of Fundamental State Policies 71-89
CHAPTER VI - The National Assembly
Part 1 General Provisions 90-97
Part 2 The House of Representatives 98-120
Part 3 The Senate 121-135
Part 4 Election Commission 136-148
Part 5 Provisions Applicable to both Houses 149-192
Part 6 Joint Sittings of the National Assembly 193-195
Part 7 Ombudsmen 196-198
Part 8 The National Human Rights Commission 199-200
CHAPTER VII - The Council of Ministers 201-212
CHAPTER VIII The Courts
Part 1 General Provisions 233-254
Part 2 Constitutional Court 255-270
Part 3 Courts of Justice 271-275
Part 4 Administrative Courts 276-280
Part 5 Military Courts 281
CHAPTER IX Local Government 282-290
CHAPTER X Inspection of the Exercise of State Power
Part 1 Declaration of Accounts Showing Particulars of Assets and Liabilities 291-296
Part 2 The National Counter Corruption Commission 297-302
Part 3 The Removal from Office 303-307
Part 4 Criminal Proceedings Against Persons Holding Political Positions 308-311
CHAPTER XI State Audit 312
CHAPTER XII Amendment of the Constitution Transitory Provisions 313
Transitory Provisions 314-336
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Created: September 1, 1995 - Last updated: February 17, 2011